Level 13

Here is your mistake in your initial thought process, as stated:

"The church paid for some renovations $60,000,"

That's not Expense. You are confusing Expense and Expenditure. Expenditures to improve buildings and property are still right there in front of you. Instead of money in the bank, you see new doors, windows, flooring, pavement, ramps, kitchen, etc. This is Never put onto taxes as Expense. Expense is when you buy printer paper, pay for electricity = Poof! Already Gone. All used up. What you are describing is Improvements with a Useful life per the IRS, as new Asset.

"and the pastor paid 40,000 out of pocket (personal loan):

That doesn't mean the Pastor paid for Improvements, though. The Pastor provided funds, first. Don't leap over the interim steps.

"hence the use of the schedule C"

But that's not the reason to use Sched C. Putting money into something is not, by definition, Sched C. Sched C is, by definition, running a business operation as a Sole Proprietorship. Needing money to do so, or not needing money to do so, has nothing to do with the need for filing Sched C as part of a 1040 tax return.

"Was just stuck when he gave receipts for the renovation but no return for the church just his own information"

You have Improvements, not Expense. Now it matters who is considered to have done the improvements. Not who Financed them, but who Owns them. Example: I rent a building from you, and I improve it to meet my needs. I can pay for it, get a loan from a bank, or even from You. They still would be My Improvements, as Tenant incurred, and I put them on my business taxes as Leasehold Improvements (because I don't own the Property). Or, you improve the building prior to finding a new tenant, and as the landlord that made the improvements, you put them on your tax return as part of your basis in your property.

"as well as the pastor starting salary of $10,000 self employed."

Self-Employed has no Salary; there is no payroll for this person as Self-Employed.

Have you got someone that can mentor you through all of this?

And your Pastor needs some professional guidance on Church management and Church accounting, as well.

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