Deductible or not the age limit for 2019 for contributing to a traditional IRA is 70 1/2.
If the client has earned income they can contribute to a Roth for 2019.
As you said, starting in 2020 they can contribute to a traditional at any age.
Pretty sure the penalty is for making an excess (not allowed) contribution.
You can play with it to double check...change the contribution to a roth and you will see there is no penalty.