Level 8
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Deductible or not the age limit for 2019 for contributing to a traditional IRA is 70 1/2.

If the client has earned income they can contribute to a Roth for 2019.

As you said, starting in 2020 they can contribute to a traditional at any age.

Pretty sure the penalty is for making an excess (not allowed) contribution.

You can play with it to double check...change the contribution to a roth and you will see there is no penalty.